Water Supply / Purity


About 2000 people live in the three Emburbul villages.

The current water source for these villagers is a small open stream. It is contaminated from washing, human and animal waste, garbage and even dead animals.

Drinking unsafe water leads to illness by water–borne diseases. According to WATERAID.ORG … each year, 4,000 Tanzania children die due to unsafe water.

Free-flowing surface water is extremely rare in the Ngorogoro district. The water comes from the Munge River which originates in the Olmonti Crater. It serves the inhabitants of the town of Nainokanoka and the many villages in the Embulbul depression.

At the waterfall there is a diversion dam and a canal, which channels the water to a tank and a cow pond. From there the water is divided into three pipes: Nainokanoka, Emburbul, and other villages far away.

In the dry part of the year, the cattle must be taken to the cattle pond for water, because there is never enough water delivered to Emburbul via the pipe, to water the cattle.

The water flow at the outlet near Emburbul villages is variable, often slowing to a dribble. Then women have to walk 7 km to the next nearest water source. Twice the cause of this lessened flow was found to be that someone had broken the pipe with a spear. Other causes may be from increased demand from other users.

When women and girls have to walk to get water, they don’t have time to develop a livelihood like bead work. Calories are burned hauling water, which robs nourishment from breast milk. And girls don’t have time to go to school.

The Munge Stream drains Olmoti Crater. It is the only water source for Naniokanoka village area.

In the past, the water flowing out of the Olmoti crater was clean and pure. Recent entrance into the Olmoti crater by large numbers of cows and, more recently people and their shelters, have seriously degraded water quality.

Human and animal waste results in unknown pollution of the entire downstream flows.

There is some sort of government management of the system, but it is inadequate.

There needs to be a broader community body of all users to establish rules and to enforce them, as well as to decide maintenance procedures and who pays for maintenance (possibly this is a government job).

Some signs and rules need to be implemented to keep human and livestock feces out of the water.

Ultimately, the number of people will exceed the water supply unless family planning is brought to all villages, or unless some of the villagers are moved out of the area by the Conservation District.

Water Conservation

Water conservation measures are strongly recommended

  • Installation of a tank to capture unused water at the tap (especially at night) to be used during the day or given to the livestock

  • broken and stolen water taps – which are now open and free-flowing – need to be replaced

  • conservation education needs to be promoted throughout the school system.

Water Purification

Until the water source problems are solved, end-user water purification must be considered.

Options are:

  • Ceramic water filters

  • Life Straw

  • Sodis

  • Boiling water

  • Adding iodine

These are in addition to making plans for:

  • Added filtration at the water box near Nainokanoka (enlist the help of an engineering NGO?)

  • Cleaning the diversion dam of debris

  • Maintaining water settling ponds

  • Cleaning filter screens

  • Building water troughs for the cattle

  • Working with the town of Nainokanoka to conserve water

Your contribution to this project will be a life force for 2000 people, and will positively impact their daily lives by giving them the gift of clean and safe water.